Yet many networks have a few virtualized network functions (VNFs) on smaller or node-based NFV Infrastructure (NFVI) platforms. The great majority indicated they intend to make significant changes to their businesses in order to take maximum advantage of 5G when it arrives. This could apply for all types of cloud infrastructures regardless if its virtual infrastructure anager (VIM)-based, NFVI or bare metal. With Ericsson Radio System products already deployed in parts of Telefónica Spain’s network, fast, flexible, and cost-efficient 5G activation is made easier. Each microservice has a well-bounded scope and can now be individually deployed, scaled and upgraded using a CaaS environment like Kubernetes. 5G has broadened this scope to offer a broad range of wireless services delivered to the end user across multiple access platforms and multi-layer networks. Option 1: for service providers), with existing NFVI platforms, an easy way to start with cloud-native applications or cloud- native network functions, (CNFs) is to add a container as a service (CaaS) platform on top of the exiting VIM (see Figure 4). As a natural evolution of current network architecture, broken up into building blocks through access, transport, cloud (including SDN and NFV), network applications and management (including orchestration and automation), 5G systems will provide a higher level of abstraction that will simplify the management. We believe this will be the long-term solution, as it simplifies the architecture and uses the underlaying hardware more efficiently, with significant, Today, this solution will already be attractive for, towards a bare metal platform for their cloud. In this paper, the 5G use cases and their respective requirements are outlined first. 5G will build on and extend the public network, making it viable for any type of applications. native applications. A high level of interworking between LTE evolution and new radio access technologies is needed to ensure that 5G functionality can be introduced smoothly and over a long transition period. Ericsson on Thursday said KDDI will use the vendor’s cloud-native dual-mode 5G core to launch standalone 5G services in its network in Japan. The transport domain delivers connectivity between remote sites and equipment/devices. Traffic jam enables motorists or passengers to use travel time profitably for leisure or business activities, with the same level of experience they enjoy at home or at work. An unprecedented ability and willingness to share information is leading to a greater degree of collaboration between people and all kinds of different industries. A service may not be confined to an operator's network, and may originate from outside the network domain. Virtual and augmented reality enable users to interact with one another as if they are in the same location. Network applications such as Evolved Packet Core (EPC), voice over LTE (VoLTE), and future 5G core network functions will be cloud enabled: that is, they will have the ability to execute in the SDN/NFV cloud environment. Such behavior can be associated with security, data-flow isolation, quality of service, reliability, independent charging and so on. These nodes and data centers are connected via programmable transport networks. Modern Slavery Statement | Privacy | Legal | © Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson 1994-2021, Your guide to building a cloudnative infrastructure for 5G, public cloud and IT players for some time, rchestration (MANO) solutions evolve from, anager (VNFM) to more advanced, extended VNFM plus cloud orchestration (NFVO). At the same time, it should be possible to support the factory with communication services from a centrally placed VoLTE installation, for example. Read the previous articles of the serie:, Building a cloud native 5G Core: the guide series, Your guide to evolving to 5G Core with full efficiency, Your guide to enabling voice services in 5G networks, Your guide to 5G network automation and zero touch, You guide to transforming network operations on the journey to 5G, Your guide to end-to-end security when introducing 5G core. Option 2: An alternative deployment option is to deploy CNFs over a bare metal infrastructure to leverage the full benefits of cloud native transformation. In this way, customers can experience virtual reality and augmented reality productions within latency and bandwidth constraints. Such a system can sense data, analyze it, make decisions, and control actuation – providing surveillance, for example, or implementing distributed feedback control and monitoring critical components, and so on. The main benefits are: More efficient use of the hardware and a simpler architecture which gives better application performance and is easier to manage. Ericsson says its Cloud Packet Core (part of the company’s Cloud Core portfolio) helps service providers to smoothly migrate to 5G Core (5GC) stand-alone architecture.. Author’s Note:. In addition to this, the management of applications, cloud, transport and access resources are shown centrally in the data center but can of course also be flexibly allocated as necessary. Ericsson technology will help T-Mobile develop and implement 5G use cases and improve 5G spectral efficiency. T-Mobile’s 5G buildout also includes 5G Standalone (SA) architecture, voice over new radio (VoNR), New Radio (NR) carrier aggregation, network slicing, and multi-user massive MIMO. As shown in the following image, the system model of 5G is entirely IP based model designed for the wireless and mobile networks. The main challenges arise from the very large number of devices to be supported, leading to a substantial increase in the control signaling relative to the user plane traffic. The 5G SA architecture will enable new opportunities for innovation for use cases such as augmented- and virtual reality (AR/VR), smart factories, and connected vehicles. Your guide to building a cloud-native infrastructure for 5G That … With the dawn of the 5G era, new use cases for the technology are emerging as consumers and enterprises set to work on identifying processes and channels that will boost the efficiency of their lives and their business. a simpler architecture which gives better application performance and is easier to man, cycle of the internal microservices that make up the application through service discovery, load distribution, must expose performance and fault management information to an external management system, Redefine customer experience in real time. They all influence each other, and so none of them should be overlooked at any point in time. The move to 5G New Radio (NR) standalone (SA) is necessary to support new advanced 5G services. (CaaS) platform on top of the exiting VIM (see Figure 4). In particular, there will be a need to: An example of the high-level architecture of the cMTC service is shown at the bottom of Figure 3, where the UP and CP have been placed on the BS site along with a "duplication" of some the core functions such the PCF and SDM. They are mostly static and largely generate traffic on the uplink. Automated and optimized workload placement across distributed data centers in a multi-domain, multi-technology and multi-vendor environment. New business models are being created with a focus on distributed cloud services and programmability of networks toward the edge. For instance, when setting up a private network in the form of a network slice that can be an end-to-end virtually isolated part of the public network, the network exposes a set of capabilities in terms of bandwidth, latency, availability and so on. Previously, local 1+1 resiliency and geo-redundancy have been sufficient for physical network functions (PNFs) due to the design of hardware. A hierarchical approach to the network is necessary to progressively improve security so end-to-end security assurance can be guaranteed. The resources allocated to a slice can be a mix of centrally located and distributed resources. At the Ericsson Blog, we provide insight to make complex ideas on technology, innovation and business simple. Resources can be dedicated exclusively to a single slice or shared between different slices. Consequently, the applications will have the advantage of being automatically scalable as well as flexible in terms of where in the network they can be deployed (centrally, distributed or a combination of the two). Third, it is made real: it is a core that meets stringent reliability & quality requirements, because it is created & delivered by Nokia with its broad portfolio and global experience, including hundreds of cloud deployments and dozens of Standalone 5G Core customers.  International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU R), "Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond," Recommendation ITU-R M.2083, September 2015,  Lars Frid et al., "A vision of the 5G Core," Ericsson Technology Review, vol. The Cisco cloud-to-client approach unifies multivendor mobile solutions into an open, cloud-native architecture so you can deploy services your customers want, when and where they need them. CNA/CNF automation. This solution has no VIM and instead the Kubernetes-based, CaaS platform runs directly on the underlaying hardware. The cloud allows infrastructure to scale in or out and automatically; in other words, when an application needs more resources, the cloud automatically spins up another instance of that application, and removes an instance when load decreases. In the following, we will explain the main architectural components of each case. These are sometimes referred to as ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) requirements. 6, June 2016, 4G/5G RAN architecture: how a split can make the difference, Modern Slavery Statement | Privacy | Legal | © Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson 1994-2021, 5G systems - Enabling the transformation of industry and society, Redefine customer experience in real time, ICT-317669 METIS project, "Scenarios, requirements and KPIs for 5G mobile and wireless system," Deliverable D1.1, April 2013, ICT-317669 METIS project, "Updated scenarios, requirements and KPIs for 5G mobile and wireless system with recommendations for future investigations," Deliverable D1.5, April 2015, International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU R), "Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond," Recommendation ITU-R M.2083, September 2015, 4G/5G RAN architecture: how a split can make the difference. The traffic running on these VNFs is typically around 30 percent, ranging from 10 to 50 percent depending on type of VNF. In industry and academia it is generally understood that the success of 5G will depend on a diversity of spectrum assets which span low, medium and high spectrum bands. Regulatory emergency services etc. Autonomous vehicle control enables an increase in autonomous driving, assisting humans, for instance, and bringing a number of benefits such as an improvement in traffic safety, increased productivity, improved quality of life and so on. In the 5G context, edge computing has been discussed to provide capabilities like low latency or device offloading for new services or dedicated enterprise networks. In particular, a software configurable purpose built architecture ,  and  with flexible deployment alternatives will be needed to provide the required overall cost efficiency. 2019 is the early stage of 5G deployment. This will require a shift to cloud-native technologies, which require a new cloud-native infrastructure to carry cloud-native functions and applications. Network management in 5G systems requires additional work to include VNFs deployed in cloud data centers. The result is a workflow to provide the desired network behavior. Many of the devices supported are battery powered or driven by alternative energy supplies, have small payloads, and might rarely be active, so they tend to be relatively delay tolerant for the most part. Because 5G is big. Even though 5G systems will have to address a wide range of use cases as illustrated above, in some of these, the requirements can be met by simply extending the 4G technical solutions already available. Today, this solution will already be attractive for service providers who seek to move firstly towards a bare metal platform for their cloud-native applications. Several layers of the CaaS use open source software which will demand at least quarterly upgrades . Providing both extreme high data-rate and low latency communications, extreme mobile broadband (eMBB)  also offers extreme coverage – well beyond that provided by 4G. It may be a question of devices connected to parking meters in a city, or asset tracking in an industrial site, for example. New applications are increasingly designed to be cloud native. There are different types of resources such as computing, storage, access equipment, transport, VNFs, and so on. Telecom phasing of software pipelines (CI/CD/CD) and merging multiple vendors. As the process unfolds, global partnerships will prove essential to enabling a cross-industry engagement in defining and building the 5G system, AAA authentication, authorization and accounting, eMBB extreme or enhanced mobile broadband, PCF policy control functionRAN radio access network, URLLC ultra-reliable low-latency communications,  Ericsson, "Opportunities in 5G: The View from Eight Industries", 2016,  Afif Osseiran, Jose F. Monserrat and Patrick Marsch, 5G Mobile and Wireless Communications Technology, Cambridge University Press, 2016,  ICT-317669 METIS project, "Scenarios, requirements and KPIs for 5G mobile and wireless system," Deliverable D1.1, April 2013,  ICT-317669 METIS project, "Updated scenarios, requirements and KPIs for 5G mobile and wireless system with recommendations for future investigations," Deliverable D1.5, April 2015,  NGMN Alliance, "NGMN 5G White paper," February 2015. This has resulted in six connectivity options for a UE, as shown in Figure … Here, we explain how to evolve to a cloud-native infrastructure. During discussions in WRC-15  emphasis has generally been placed on high spectrum bands such as millimeter wave bands, although many administrations also realize that low bands below 6GHz will be key to providing the necessary coverage and bandwidth. A recent report by Ericsson  shows that "A small majority of European and North American operators believed 5G will be more consumer-driven, while a similar majority in Asia Pacific and Central and Latin America expected 5G to be more business-driven." 5G is the successor of 4G LTE and is the 5th generation of mobile communication. We outline below how these will evolve towards a fullfledged 5G system (also exemplified in Figure 1). In cloud-deployed systems, orchestration is needed to arrange and coordinate automated tasks and allocated resources through centralized management. The best combination of any radio beam within reach of a user should be used for connectivity across all access network technologies, antenna points, and sites. While higher network and device complexity is more readily acceptable in critical communication, mMTC will have to address cyber-security assurance with low-complexity devices. need to be supported. Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core will allow the Japanese operator to support the development of new 5G use cases for mobile broadband users, enterprises and industry partners. In practical terms, one of the most significant challenges will be to support cMTC business services where high-grade network slices need to provide the required levels of availability, robustness and resilience to attacks. It is important to note that even though new radio access technologies such as NR will require a new radio bearer, NR and LTE will be fully integrated from a system perspective so NR can both be added as a stand-alone system – for industry applications, for example – or as a natural evolution of the existing wide area LTE networks. Fig. and we also see early end-to-end service orchestration deployments. The three types that can be also designed as 5G services are discussed in the following. The transport networks are connected via backbone nodes that carry the information from the access nodes to the data centers where most of the data is stored and the network is managed. A new use of dual connectivity has also been applied to use LTE/eLTE and NR as the master or secondary radio access technology (RAT) in different combinations. Such flexible scaling is impossible to achieve when the application is implemented with dedicated hardware. A detailed explanation of the requirements can be found in [3-7]. Management entities evolve from ordering explicit configurations (configuring a router or a server, for example) to distributing policies, KPIs and target goals that each subsystem optimizes autonomously and locally. complemented by Massive MIMO capacity over mid-bands and high-bands. Media on demand supports an individual user's desire to be able to enjoy media content (such as audio and video) anytime and anywhere. Analytics is a key tool for increasing automation of operations by providing prediction insights that can be applied automatically. Therefore, a CNA/CNF should support any combination of failures at any time, without escalation to full restart and loss of service. Careful attention will need to be paid to security in the case of both mMTC and cMTC. The goal is to expand the broadband capability of mobile networks, and to provide specific capabilities for consumers and for various industries and society at large unleashing the potential of the Internet of Things. Teleprotection in a smart grid network is the ability to react to rapid changes in the supply or usage of resources (such as electricity, water and gas) to avoid transient system failures that can damage equipment or cause customers the inconvenience of power outages. 8, 2015, etr-5g-transport-networks.pdf,  Erik Westerberg, "4G/5G RAN ARCHITECTURE: HOW A SPLIT CAN MAKE THE DIFFERENCE," Ericsson Technology Review, vol. Finally, it should be noted that analysis and security are essential functions that can be considered part of 5G network management. The deployment architecture corresponding to these cases is shown in Figure 3, realized here by separate network slices supporting each service. The 5G system, which is shown in Figure 2, will be built on "flexible" radio access nodes, distributed and centralized data centers allowing for flexible allocation of workloads. This also enables solution support of the entire cloud infrastructure stack through a single interface. The testbed that Ericsson and Nokia are involved in is focused on sharing spectrum between airborne military radar systems and commercial 5G cellular users in the 3.1-3.45 GHz band. The stability of telecoms cloud platforms has been a challenge for the industry in past years, but has now reached a good maturity level. Smart city networks include remote monitoring of city infrastructure, real-time traffic information and public safety alerts for improved emergency response times. Ericsson DMP is your key to Digital BSS innovation. This platform is then expanded with a CaaS layer to support 5GC and other CNFs. 5G at the "G" - Ericsson and Telstra trial 5G at Melbourne Cricket Ground. NFV is about virtualizing network functions (by implementing them in software) and the functions that can run on a range of standard hardware. Shopping malls can allow delivery of personalized shopping experiences. Automated pipelines have the potential to solve many challenges of the software life cycle. In addition to providing bulk connectivity for the operator's mobile network fronthaul and backhaul, the transport domain may offer different types of customer facing connectivity services, such as a Layer 2 or Layer 3 VPN. This solution has no VIM and instead the Kubernetes-based, CaaS platform runs directly on the underlaying hardware. Investing time in these topics will make you better equipped to plan, deploy and manage your new network for business success. This creates an obvious opportunity to generate value from distributed storage and cloud computing towards specific clients and services as well. Build a 5G network that is cost-efficient, simplified, and trustworthy. Through staging multi-vendor systems in multiple phases, the increase in network and system complexity can be mitigated and the cost of integration can be managed.Fig 6. Network slices are key to delivering differentiated offerings, as they can provide a complete solution environment that is adapted for specific application usage – and they do this in a way that uses network resources efficiently. Based on our experience in deploying 5G Core networks with leading service providers around the globe, the most common scenario is a journey starting with a smaller virtualization with few VNFs, which is expanded to a multi-VNF horizontal NFVI with MANO for multi-vendor VNFs. The other functions such as SDM, operations support systems (OSS) and policy control function (PCF) will be executed in the primary data center. The solution to this is a shared infrastructure with orchestrated network slices to efficiently deploy all the services. It already supports the 5G service-based architecture and interfaces to cater for the new 5G parameters used to correctly charge for those services. Please sign up for email updates on your favorite topics. The Swiss operator recently carried out live 5G SA voice and data calls using Voice over New Radio (VoNR) and carrier aggregation along with Ericsson Spectrum Sharing. This means that Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF)-certified Kubernetes will be deployed in virtual machines over an Openstack-based infrastructure as a service (IaaS). It may also be an alternative for those that still don’t have a unified virtualized core to expand upon. 5G Wiki - must have a wikipedia link ;-0. Network slicing provides multiple benefits including the possibility to optimize the functional deployment and the network function configuration.
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